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Pediatric Ophthalmology

First years of life are critical for a correct development of the vision. Therefore, early diagnosis in children is crucial in order to correct eye defects and avoid consequences that can persist throughout life.

VISSUM Corporación Oftalmológica count on highly specialized professionals in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Optometry and with sophisticated technology to detect and treat any eye disease in children.

It is up to parents be aware of the evolution of their children´s visual system and to value on time the evidence that children can show visual difficulties.

Most common eye problems in childhood





Amblyopia or lazy eye.

How to detect that a child cannot see properly?

If the child moves closer or further away from the paper while reading.

Stops looking at the paper frecuently.

Closes their eyelids while looking.

Rubs their eyes continuously.

Twists his head to both sides often when reading.

Watery eyes.

Has headaches frequently.

Has red eyes.

The sun causes discomfort or they have trouble in adapting to darkness.

In each case, it is advisable to visit an ophthalmologist to prevent visual defects.

Their first months

It is estimated that newborn vision is 5% of a normal adult vision.

Between the first and third year old, the child reaches 50% of vision. A normal child should achieve 100% of vision in each eye, between 5 and 6 years of age.

Visual Development of the child during the first months of live :

From 0 to 1 month :

 child closes his eyes if he detects light.

 The child detects contrast between bright and dark.

 His field of vision is under 30cm.

From 1 to 2 months :

 The child looks carefully at his parents.

 The child follows his hands with the eyes around his field of vision.

 The child only knows white, black, red, green and grey color.

 The child directs his head towards the light.

From 2 to 3 months :

 The child can recognize the faces and memorize them.

 The child follows with his eyes the movement of objects.

 His nearby and far vision is more defined.

From 3 to 4 months :

 The child has binocular vision with four months of age.

 The child focuses with no difficulties from a distance of 40cm.

 The child can differ more the colors.

 The child looks and plays with his hand.

From 5 months on :

 The coordination between what he sees and his motor functions, allows the child to do movements of pressure with his hands.

Warning Symptoms

If problems have occurred during pregnancy or childbirth, for example, some infections contracted by the mother. Toxoplasmosis can cause swelling of the retina and other structures of the eye of the newborn.

In case of premature birth an ophthalmologist visit is mandatory.

If parents have common problems of vision, such as myopia, or hereditary problems such as glaucoma.

When the baby´s eyes shed tears easily, it might be due to a widening of the tear ducts which is a very common problem of vision in children.

If we observe any deviation in the newborn´s eyes or the fall of any eyelid.

Indispensable visits


First months Checkups to rule out ocular conditions such as retinoblastoma (the most common eye tumour in childhood) and other malformations.

First year of life Diagnosis of strabismus (squint) and disorders of eye movement, as well as refractive defects.

4 years of age To test visual acuity and refractive problems. To rule out the presence of lazy eye or amblyopia. 

From the 4th year onwards Annual checkups up to 14 years of age.

School Age

It has been shown that a high percentage of school leavers is due to problems of vision.

About 20% of school age children might have problems of vision in one or both eyes.

Early detection is vital to solve some eye problems which only have solution in the early years of childhood.

Tips for enjoying a good visual health

Studying: If the room has a window, it would be suitable to place the table in front of it in order to relax the view and look away from time to time. It is preferible natural lighting. If we are forced to use artificial light, we should avoid shadows projected onto the study book.

Watching TV : It is very important to keep an appropriate distance between eyes and screen.

The computer : In front of the computer, it is advisable to take breaks frequently, so that the view can rest.

In the swimming pool : The chlorine in pools is an irritant which alters our eyes, so we should avoid direct contact of children´s eyes with the water using swimming glasses.

The sun : Do not look at the sun directly in a fixed and continuous way. It is advisable to protect children´s eyes with suitable sunglasses.

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